- Windows containers
- Improved UI for Daemon.json editing
- VHDX file containing images and non-host mounted volumes can be moved (using “advanced” tab in the UI)
- Support for arm, aarch64, ppc64le architectures using qemu
- TRIM support for disk (shrinks virtual disk)
- VM’s time synchronization is forced after the host wakes from sleep mode
- Docker Experimental mode can be toggled
- Bug fixes and minor changes
- Improved Proxy UI
- Improvements to Logging and Diagnostics
- About Box is now Copy/Paste enabled
- Improvements in drive sharing code
- Optimized boot process
- Trend Micro Office Scan made the Api proxy think no drive was shared
- Show a link to the virtualization documentation
- Always remove the disk on factory reset (#5719)
- VPNKit: Improved diagnostics (#6080, #6104)
- VPNKit: Forwarded UDP datagrams should have correct source port numbers (#5926)
- VPNKit: If one request fails, allow other concurrent requests to succeed. For example this allows IPv4 servers to work even if IPv6 is broken. (#5926)
- VPNKit: Fix bug which could cause the connection tracking to underestimate the number of active connections (#5926)
- VPNKit: add a local cache of DNS responses
What are Containers
Basically, a container is an isolated place where an application can run without affecting the rest of the system and without the system affecting the application. Containers are the next evolution in virtualization.
If you were inside a container, it would look very much like you were inside a freshly installed physical computer or a virtual machine. And, to Docker, a Windows Server Container can be managed in the same way as any other container.
Windows Container Types
Windows Server Containers – provide application isolation through process and namespace isolation technology. A Windows Server container shares a kernel with the container host and all containers running on the host.
Hyper-V Containers – expand on the isolation provided by Windows Server Containers by running each container in a highly optimized virtual machine. In this configuration the kernel of the container host is not shared with the Hyper-V Containers.
When you begin working with containers you will notice many similarities between a container and a virtual machine. A container runs an operating system, has a file system and can be accessed over a network just as if it was a physical or virtual computer system. That said, the technology and concepts behind containers are very different from that of virtual machines.
Container Host: Physical or Virtual computer system configured with the Windows Container feature. The container host will run one or more Windows Containers.
Container Image: As modifications are made to a containers file system or registry, such as with software installation they are captured in a sandbox. In many cases you may want to capture this state such that new containers can be created that inherit these changes. That’s what an image is – once the container has stopped you can either discard that sandbox or you can convert it into a new container image. For example, let’s imagine that you have deployed a container from the Windows Server Core OS image. You then install MySQL into this container. Creating a new image from this container would act as a deployable version of the container. This image would only contain the changes made (MySQL), however would work as a layer on top of the Container OS Image.
Sandbox: Once a container has been started, all write actions such as file system modifications, registry modifications or software installations are captured in this ‘sandbox’ layer.
Container OS Image: Containers are deployed from images. The container OS image is the first layer in potentially many image layers that make up a container. This image provides the operating system environment. A Container OS Image is Immutable, it cannot be modified.
Container Repository: Each time a container image is created the container image and its dependencies are stored in a local repository. These images can be reused many times on the container host. The container images can also be stored in a public or private registry such as DockerHub so that they can be used across many different container host.
You have to install these Windows Server 2016 Rolls and Feature first before you start with Containers :
My Windows 2016 Server Build version.
Here is an example on my Windows 2016 Server to get started with Windows Containers :
Install-Module -Name DockerMsftProvider -Repository PSGallery -Force
Install-Package -Name docker -ProviderName DockerMsftProvider
Here we pull out of the Docker Hub the Microsoft Nanoserver Container.
Downloading the Image.
Automatically extract the image.
Docker run -i -t microsoft/nanoserver
( you will see the container with Nanoserver is running)
Inside the container.
Running Powershell inside the container.
Containers for Developers
From a developer’s desktop to a testing machine to a set of production machines, a Docker image can be created that will deploy identically across any environment in seconds. This story has created a massive and growing ecosystem of applications packaged in Docker containers, with DockerHub, the public containerized-application registry that Docker maintains, currently publishing more than 180,000 applications in the public community repository.
When you containerize an app, only the app and the components needed to run the app are combined into an “image”. Containers are then created from this image as you need them. You can also use an image as a baseline to create another image, making image creation even faster. Multiple containers can share the same image, which means containers start very quickly and use fewer resources. For example, you can use containers to spin up light-weight and portable app components – or ‘micro-services’ – for distributed apps and quickly scale each service separately.
Because the container has everything it needs to run your application, they are very portable and can run on any machine that is running Windows Server 2016. You can create and test containers locally, then deploy that same container image to your company’s private cloud, public cloud or service provider. The natural agility of Containers supports modern app development patterns in large scale, virtualized and cloud environments.
With containers, developers can build an app in any language. These apps are completely portable and can run anywhere – laptop, desktop, server, private cloud, public cloud or service provider – without any code changes.
Containers helps developers build and ship higher-quality applications, faster.
Containers for IT Pro’s
IT Professionals can use containers to provide standardized environments for their development, QA, and production teams. They no longer have to worry about complex installation and configuration steps. By using containers, systems administrators abstract away differences in OS installations and underlying infrastructure. Containers help admins create an infrastructure that is simpler to update and maintain
Lot of Success with Containers and Nanoserver
Docker for Windows
An integrated, easy-to-deploy environment for building, assembling, and shipping applications from a Windows PC, Docker for Windows is a native Windows application with a native user interface and auto-update capability, deeply integrated with Windows native virtualization, Hyper-V, networking and file system, making it faster and more reliable than previous ways of getting Docker on a Windows PC
Before you install Docker for Windows 10 make sure you have the right Windows 10 version.
The current version of Docker for Windows runs on 64bit Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise and Education (1511 November update, Build 10586 or later).
And have the Hyper-V feature of Windows 10 installed. Here you can download Docker for Windows 10
Click on Install.
Click Finish and Launch Docker
The Docker VM
Now you can work from Powershell with Docker Containers :
There is also a graphical GUI called Kitematic with the Docker Hub connection for the Container marketplace.
This will download Kitematic.
Kitematic with recommended Docker Containers to download 😉
If you search for Azure you find a lot of Azure related Docker Containers.
It’s so easy to download a container from the Docker Hub and make it running on your Windows 10 Machine, here is an example of an Jenkins Container:
It’s downloading the Docker Container Image.
Jenkins is already running in the Docker Container and is
asking some questions for the setup.
Jenkins is setting up the environment.
And now we have Jenkins in a Container running.
Here you can find more information about Jenkins
And with Kitematic you can see the log of the Jenkins Container
Here you can start, restart or stop the Docker Containers.
Here I did a Docker Inspect Jenkins to see settings of the Container.
Hope this blogpost is useful to play with Docker Containers on your Windows 10 device 😉
When you want to learn more about Microsoft Windows Containers you can start here :
When you want to learn more about Microsoft Azure Container Services you can start here :
Lot of Success with running Containers !
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Windows Containers on Hyper-V NanoServer nested Virtualization
Install Container Feature
The container feature can be installed on Windows Server 2016, or Windows Server 2016 Core, using Windows Server Manager or PowerShell.
To install the role using PowerShell, run the following command in an elevated PowerShell session.
PS C:\> Install-WindowsFeature containers
The system needs to be rebooted when the container role installation has completed.
PS C:\> shutdown /r
After the system has rebooted, use the
Get-ContainerHost command to verify that the container role has successfully been installed:
PS C:\> Get-ContainerHost
Prepare Nano Server
Deploying Nano Server involves creating a prepared virtual hard drive, which includes the Nano Server operating system, and additional feature packages. This guide quickly details preparing a Nano Server virtual hard drive, which can be used for Windows Containers.
For more information on Nano Server, and to explore different Nano Server deployment options, see the Nano Server Documentation.
Create a folder named
PS C:\> New-Item -ItemType Directory c:\nano
Convert-WindowsImage.ps1 files from the Nano Server folder, on the Windows Server Media. Copy these to
#Set path to Windows Server 2016 Media PS C:\> $WindowsMedia = "C:\Users\Administrator\Downloads\WindowsServerTP4" PS C:\> Copy-Item $WindowsMedia\NanoServer\Convert-WindowsImage.ps1 c:\nano PS C:\> Copy-Item $WindowsMedia\NanoServer\NanoServerImageGenerator.psm1 c:\nano
Run the following to create a Nano Server virtual hard drive. The
–Containers parameter indicates that the container package will be installed, and the
–Compute parameter takes care of the Hyper-V package. Hyper-V is only required if Hyper-V containers will be created.
PS C:\> Import-Module C:\nano\NanoServerImageGenerator.psm1 PS C:\> New-NanoServerImage -MediaPath $WindowsMedia -BasePath c:\nano -TargetPath C:\nano\NanoContainer.vhdx -MaxSize 10GB -GuestDrivers -ReverseForwarders -Compute -Containers
When completed, create a virtual machine from the
NanoContainer.vhdx file. This virtual machine will be running the Nano Server OS, with optional packages.
Configure Nested Virtualization
If the container host itself will be running on a Hyper-V virtual machine, and will also be hosting Hyper-V Containers, nested virtualization needs to be enabled. This can be completed with the following PowerShell command.
The virtual machines must be turned off when running this command.
PS C:\> Set-VMProcessor -VMName <container host vm> -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $true
Configure Virtual Processors
If the container host itself will be running on a Hyper-V virtual machine, and will also be hosting Hyper-V Containers, the virtual machine will require at least two processors. This can be configured through the settings of the virtual machine, or with the following PowerShell script.
PS C:\> Set-VMProcessor –VMName <VM Name> -Count 2
Enable Hyper-V Role
If Hyper-V Containers will be deployed, the Hyper-V role needs to be enabled on the container host. If the container host is a virtual machine, ensure that nested virtualization has been enabled. The Hyper-V role can be installed on Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2016 Core using the following PowerShell command.
PS C:\> Install-WindowsFeature hyper-v
Create Virtual Switch
Each container needs to be attached to a virtual switch in order to communicate over a network. A virtual switch is created with the
New-VMSwitch command. Containers support a virtual switch with type
This example creates a virtual switch with the name “Virtual Switch”, a type of NAT, and Nat Subnet of 172.16.0.0/12.
PS C:\> New-VMSwitch -Name "Virtual Switch" -SwitchType NAT -NATSubnetAddress 172.16.0.0/12
In addition to creating a virtual switch, if the switch type is NAT, a NAT object needs to be created. This is completed using the
New-NetNat command. This example creates a NAT object, with the name
ContainerNat, and an address prefix that matches the NAT subnet assigned to the container switch.
PS C:\> New-NetNat -Name ContainerNat -InternalIPInterfaceAddressPrefix "172.16.0.0/12" Name : ContainerNat ExternalIPInterfaceAddressPrefix : InternalIPInterfaceAddressPrefix : 172.16.0.0/12 IcmpQueryTimeout : 30 TcpEstablishedConnectionTimeout : 1800 TcpTransientConnectionTimeout : 120 TcpFilteringBehavior : AddressDependentFiltering UdpFilteringBehavior : AddressDependentFiltering UdpIdleSessionTimeout : 120 UdpInboundRefresh : False Store : Local Active : True
Finally, if the container host is running inside of a Hyper-V virtual machine, MAC spoofing must be enable. This allows each container to receive an IP Address. To enable MAC address spoofing, run the following command on the Hyper-V host. The VMName property will be the name of the container host.
PS C:\> Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName <contianer host vm> | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -MacAddressSpoofing On
Install OS Images
An OS image is used as the base to any Windows Server or Hyper-V container. The image is used to deploy a container, which can then be modified, and captured into a new container image. OS images have been created with both Windows Server Core and Nano Server as the underlying operating system.
Container OS images can be found and installed using the ContainerProvider PowerShell module. Before using this module, it needs to be installed. The following commands can be used to install the module.
PS C:\> Install-PackageProvider ContainerProvider -Force
Return a list of images from PowerShell OneGet package manager:
PS C:\> Find-ContainerImage Name Version Description ---- ------- ----------- NanoServer 10.0.10586.0 Container OS Image of Windows Server 2016 Techn... WindowsServerCore 10.0.10586.0 Container OS Image of Windows Server 2016 Techn...
To download and install the Nano Server base OS image, run the following.
PS C:\> Install-ContainerImage -Name NanoServer -Version 10.0.10586.0 Downloaded in 0 hours, 0 minutes, 10 seconds.
Likewise, this command downloads and installs the Windows Server Core base OS image.
Issue: Save-ContainerImage and Install-ContainerImage cmdlets fail to work with a WindowsServerCore container image, from a remote PowerShell session.
Workaround: Logon to the machine using Remote Desktop and use Save-ContainerImage cmdlet directly.
PS C:\> Install-ContainerImage -Name WindowsServerCore -Version 10.0.10586.0 Downloaded in 0 hours, 2 minutes, 28 seconds.
Verify that the images have been installed using the
PS C:\> Get-ContainerImage Name Publisher Version IsOSImage ---- --------- ------- --------- NanoServer CN=Microsoft 10.0.10586.0 True WindowsServerCore CN=Microsoft 10.0.10586.0 True
For more information on Container management See Windows Containers Documentation
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